Sunday, November 10, 2013


The world is moving so fast these days that people who say"it cant be done" are usually interrupted by someone doing it.
Life is indeed process of self discovery!

Saturday, November 9, 2013

Plug and Play devices

Plug and Play (PnP) is a system for configuring devices, usually in the form of add-in cards, that enables them to work together without conflicting with each other. PnP consists of:
* PnP and non PnP cards (devices)
* PnP initialisation and run-time routines within the Operating System (OS) and utility software
* PnP BIOS routines
There are three types of PnP cards that can be auto-configured:
* PC Cards (PCMCIA).
All other devices are non PnP, have a static configuration and classified as ISA Legacy Devices. PnP devices are configured around Legacy devices. Windows95 configures Legacy devices with the 'Add New Hardware' wizard. Resource Usage (IRQs, I/O ports, DMA channels and memory windows): PnP can use one of two methods of determining resource usage.
1. Determine the resources that are not generically detectable and establish the areas unavailable for configurable devices.
2. Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD) method. ESCD stores Legacy information and the Last Working Configuration (LWC) of configurable devices. This allows the system to ensure that resource assignment and device placements are the same each time the computer is powered on. This is important when using device drivers that get their resource allocation information from a static source, such as the command line parameters in config.sys file.
A fully PnP compliant system requires a PnP BIOS. ESCD configures PnP boot devices as part of the Power On Self Test (POST) before booting the operating system. ESCD also allows run-time software (Windows95 Device Manager) to request specific resource assignments for PnP devices. This allows difficult to place configurations to be manually setup or disabled.
PnP elements: There are four elements to a PnP system.
1. The PnP BIOS starts the auto-configuration of the PnP cards during the POST. This in turn isolates any Legacy devices and ascertains the resource needs of PnP devices.
2. The ESCD functions are used to determine resources already in use by Legacy devices, and which are available for PnP devices. A PnP BIOS must be able to configure the card or cards that are required to boot the operating system (video and disk controllers), and may also configure all the cards in the computer, which is necessary for operating systems that don't feature native support for PnP cards. After identifying the PnP cards, the PnP BIOS compares these cards with those in the ESCD. If found, they are configured as stored in the corresponding ESCD entry. This ensures that when no new hardware has been installed, the PnP devices are configured identically for each session. If the PnP BIOS cannot find an entry in the ESCD, it consults the ESCD to determine what resources are free and assigns these to the new card. In addition, the ESCD allows system software and utilities to communicate with the BIOS, by placing their desired resource allocations in the ESCD.
3. The Configuration Manager (CM), configures the PnP cards not configured by the PnP BIOS, by using the ESCD in a similar manner as the BIOS does.
4. The ISA Configuration Utility (ICU) is designed to assist in determining a conflict-free configuration for standard (Legacy) ISA cards, as well as providing advanced configuration support for PnP cards. The ICU will allow certain functions in multi-function cards to be disabled and the configuration of particular cards to be locked: primarily for use with non PnP supporting operating systems.
The PnP BIOS performs the following steps to configure the PnP devices before starting the machine:
* Builds a structure called the Resource Map, to determine the available system resources - IRQ, I/O ports, DMA channels and memory windows.
* The Resource Map is then initialised to indicate the resources available.
* The BIOS determines the resources used by the system board devices, either by looking up the information in the ESCD, or by enquiring from the BIOS the resources used by system board devices.
* The PnP BIOS then interrogates the ESCD in order to determine resources that are allocated to Legacy cards, and updates the Resource Map. At this stage, the Resource Map contains all the necessary information on all Legacy devices.
* PnP ISA cards are examined to establishes its resource needs.
* After identification, the boards are configured, starting with the last known working configuration for each card in the ESCD. For new cards, the system will use the first alternative configuration that matches the card's resource requirements. However, if none are found, then the next set of available resources is tried. If the system runs out of resources, it will go back to the previously configured cards and attempt to re-configure them to make room for the new card.
* The BIOS then scans the standard expansion BIOS memory area looking for the expansion BIOS signatures for Legacy ISA and PnP ISA cards. These are initialised on detection.
* The PCI Configuration Space is examined and PCI devices initialised. As PCI devices are fully configurable by definition, these devices are configured on a first come/first served basis. Again, the last working configuration stored in the ESCD is tried before any attempt to dynamically configure resources.
* If one or more PCI cards can't be configured, an error is generated and the task of configuration is passed to the Configuration Manager.
* The expansion BIOSs are initialised and the ESCD structure updated with the new PCI device configurations - ESCD data for PnP ISA card configurations is carried out by the Configuration Manager.

Thursday, October 31, 2013

How to Install Android 4.1 Jelly Bean For Galaxy Y

Looking for Android 4.1 Jelly Bean for Galaxy Y? Yes, of course you can. Find out details after the jump!
Thanks to S5360 custom ROM for Android 4.1 Jelly bean, now you can update your Galaxy Y to Android 4.1. In this post you will learn how to update your Samsung Galaxy Y to Android 4.1 Jelly Bean using S5360 custom ROM.

Before you proceed, you will need to have fulfilled following requirements:
  1. You have installed your Galaxy Y USB drivers on your PC.
  2. You need to enable USB debugging mode which is deactivated by default.
  3. You smartphone should have 70-80% charge remaining.
  4. Your Galaxy Y should be rooted.
  5. This guide is only meant for Galaxy Y GT-S5360, dont try it on other variants of Galaxy Y. You can check your Galaxy Y version in Settings –> About phone.
  6. Last but not least, backup your important data like Call logs, SMS and other data in stored in phone memory so in case if anything goes wrong, your data is not hurt.
How to Install Android 4.1 Jelly Bean For Galaxy Y
Step 1) Download Android 4.1 Jelly Bean for Galaxy Y.
Step 2) Connect your Galaxy Y USB to your computer using the USB cable.
Step 3) Copy the downloaded file to your SD card.
Step 4) Turn off your phone and then turn it in again in the recovery mode by pressing and holding the Volume UP + Home + Power buttons. Alternatively you can check this: Enter Any Android Device into Recovery Mode
Step 5) Now you will see exclamation mark on your phone screen. Again hold your volume up and power buttons. Now your Galaxy Y is in recovery mode.
Step 6) Once your smartphone is in ClockworkMod recovery, you are ready to perform a Nandroid backup of your existing ROM. For that you will need to select Backup and Restore option followed by selecting Backup again in next windows. Once the backup is completed, you are ready to go back to main recovery menu.
 Step 7) Now you will need to wipe the previous ROM first. For that select Wipe data/factory reset option and select Yes to confirm the action.
Step 7) Now select Install zip from sdcard and then select choose zip from sdcard.
Step 8) Navigate to Custom ROM file we have just uploaded to SD card in step 3 and select it using power button. Confirm the installation on the next screen and the installation procedure should start now.
Step 9) Once installation is completed, go back to main recovery menu and select Reboot System Now.
Recommended: Before rebooting your phone from CWM Recovery, go to CWM Recovery main menu and select Wipe Dalvik Cache under Advance option to perform the Dalvik cache wiping.
So now you have successfully installed the Jelly Bean for Galaxy Y custom ROM on your phone. Your phone will now boot for the first time in Android 4.1 Jelly Bean, so it might take some time on first boot. Congrats your Galaxy Y is now updated to Android 4.1 Jelly Bean. You can verify it by going to Settings –> About Phone.
Don’t Like Jelly Bean For Galaxy Y?
Going Back to Previous State: If you encounter any serious problem during installation of this custom ROM, then no worries, you can restore your phone to previous state provided you followed Step 6. To restore your phone to previous ROM, boot your phone to recovery mode and select Backup and restore and then select the backup file from the list.
For future updates, follow the XDA-Thread over here if you need help regarding this Jelly Bean for Galaxy Y article.

What is IP?

A complete tutorial about IP Address
Let us begin with IP Addresses.
What is an IP Address?
An Internet Protocol address is a
numerical label assigned to each
device (e.g., computer, mobile phone)
that is connected to a computer
network that uses the Internet
Protocol for communication.
An IP address is used for two
1) To identify whether the interface is
host or network.
2) To determine the location of the
IP Versions: IPv4 and IPv6.
Although IPv4 is the earlier version,
it is the most commonly used
IPv4 is a 32-bit decimal number
while IPv6 is 128-bit number.
IPv4 is normally written as four
numbers between 1 and 255, each
separated from the other by a
decimal point.
This standard is called as DOTTED-
There are countless IP addresses in
today's world!
What is the purpose of IP Address
Each IP Address Class provides the
following information:
Class A: First 8 bits → NETWORK ID
& remaining 24 bits → HOST ID
Class B: First 16 bits → NETWORK
ID & remaining 16 bits → HOST ID
Class C: First 24 bits → NETWORK
ID & remaining 8 bits → HOST ID
Class D: It represents a 32-bit
multicast group ID.
Class E: It is currently not being
used. (NO need)
For example,
Let us consider the IP Address
We know that it belongs to Class C.
Therefore, the NETWORK ID is
203.43.21 and the HOST ID is 12.

How to check antivirus is good or bad

 Just copy the link below in notepad and save it as filename.exe and run it to check whether it is good or bad.